Welcome to the LIFE PASTORALP platform
This section displays an updated and static cartography of the Gran Paradiso National Park and Parc Des Ecrins pasture vegetation, according to 13 grassland types, inventoried by integrating field surveys (carried out in 2019-2020-2021) and remotely sensed data. The interactive one can be navigated onto the WEBGIS section.
The pasture mapping activity involved the PNE and PNGP territories differently: in the PNE, some pasture maps produced under the “Alpages Sentinelles” programme were already available. The field work allowed to add six more pasture maps and to resurvey for a total of 2563 ha mapped. In the Gran Paradiso National Park, on the other hand, the surveys and mapping activities were done ex novo. All mountain pastures of Gran Paradiso National Park and closest surroundings, for a total of about 7500 ha, were involved.
The inventory followed a common and shared methodology between the two areas, likely to easily replicable to the whole western Alps, namely:
- The territories of the two Parks lie in the validity zones of three different vegetation typologies, which classify the main plant communities that can be found in subalpine and alpine pastures in French Southern Alps (Jouglet, 1999), Vanoise and Aosta Valley (Bornard et al., 2007) or Piedmont (Cavallero et al., 2007). Categorization criteria were harmonised between the three classifications and common 13 pasture categories were developed.
- The mountain grassland types have been identified by field visual assessments, and mapped according to the existing pasture typologies. This action was implemented in the territories of Gran Paradiso National Parkand closest surroundings (Orco, Cogne and Rhêmes Valleys) as well in targeted pastoral units of Parc Des Ecrins.
- Existing and new remote sensing data (namely Landsat and Sentinel2 images) were used to implement innovative ways of mapping the main types of mountain pastures at a relevant scale for pastoral management. Whenever feasible, a special attention was paid to the cross-validation between field and satellite data. This result was achieved through these steps: a) identification and characterization of a number of properly representative surfaces to cover the range of variation in representative plots; b) processing and analysis of remotely sensed data to select the spectral indices capable of best discriminating the different vegetation types; c) validation of the detection algorithms through the comparison of results derived from satellite imagery with real vegetation on the ground.
The harmonization of classifications to define 13 common pasture categories from the Aosta Valley typology is reported in the figure.
A brief description of pastoral typologies is hereby, while the pasture type correspondences between the three vegetation typologies of the study area is reported in Table 1:
- Productive: vegetation in flatlands and low slopes of the subalpine level with rich soil. Very tall (over 50 cm) and very dense vegetation dominated by broad-leaved graminaceae.
- Subalpine intermediate: vegetation in flatlands and low slopes of the subalpine level with medium-rich soil. 30 to 50 cm high, dense grassy patches dominated by fine to medium-leaved graminaceae.
- Nardus swards: on lowlands and slopes in the subalpine or alpine level, vegetation of medium height (20-30 cm), not very dense, dominated by Nardus stricta.
- Grassy thermophile: on medium and steepy sunny slopes in the subalpine and alpine level, on dry and fairly deep soil. 30 to 50 cm high, very dense vegetation with almost total herbaceous cover.
- Patzkea paniculata swards: on medium sunny slopes in the subalpine level, vegetation very tall (over 50 cm), very dense, dominated by graminaceae with long, thick leaves, especially Patzkea paniculata.
- Brachypodium pinnatum swards: on medium sunny slopes in the subalpine level, vegetation of medium height (20-30 cm), dense, dominated by Brachypodium pinnatum.
- Bare thermophile: medium to steep south-facing slopes in the subalpine and alpine level with dry soil.
- Alpine intermediate: sparse vegetation on medium to moderate slopes, windy ridges and bumps in the alpine level.
- Nival: sparse vegetation in snow combes and moderate slopes in alpine and nival environment.
- Heaths: vegetation with a shrub and herb layer in the subalpine and alpine environment.
- Nitrophilous vegetation: in flatlands and moderate slopes of the subalpine level; these herbaceous formations, dominated by nitrophilous species, develop in areas of accumulation and excess of manure.
- Screes: areas with more than 50% of the surface occupied by stones and rocks, on steep slopes, located under ridges or rock bars.
- Wetlands: very wet areas with temporary or permanent excess of water.
Table 1. Pasture type correspondences between the three vegetation typologies of the study area.
|PASTURE CATEGORY||AOSTA VALLEY – VANOISE TYPES||PIEDMONT TYPES||FRENCH SOUTHERN ALPS TYPES|
|Productive||S3||8, 56, 57, 59|
|Subalpine intermediate||S2||52, 53, 54, 60, 64,||PI3|
|Nardus swards||S1, A8||29, 30, 32, 41, 47, 48, 49, 61||PI2, PI4|
|Grassy thermophile||A3, S4||11, 40||PT1|
|P. paniculata swards||S6||26||PI6, PI7|
|B. pinnatum swards||S5||3, 25||PT2, PI5|
|Bare thermophile||SA1, SA2, SA3, A1, A2||13, 17, 19, 24, 46, 50||PT3, PT4, PI1|
|Alpine intermediate||A4, A5, A6, A7||21, 22, 33, 35, 36, 37||PT5|
|Nival||A9, A10||72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79||PN1, PN2, PN3, PN4|
|Heaths||L1, L2, L3||90, 91, 92||F1, F2, F3, F4|
|Nitrophilous vegetation||67, 69||RA1, RA2|
|Wetlands||ZH||81, 86||ZH1, ZH2|
For further details, please refer to Deliverable C.6 (due in January 2022).
Pasture Vegetation in the inner alps: the hierarchy
This section includes real-time data deriving from a series of phenocams and NDVI sensors positioned both in the Gran Paradiso National Park and in the Parc Des Ecrins to monitor the phenology of pastures.
Gran Paradiso National Park: a network of phenocam and NDVI sensors allows to track the seasonal evolution of canopy structural and functional properties and their interactions with climate and grazing; observation sites are located along a management gradient: a low elevation (~1500 m asl) intensively grazed pasture (Epinel), an extensively grazed grassland at 2000 m asl (Lauson) an high elevation grassland (Levionaz) with bouquet in grazing. Collected data are used to understand the feedbacks between taxonomical and functional diversity with site conditions, climate and grazing intensity, frequency and timing. They also represent field observations that can be used to evaluate remotely sensed products and to inform grassland productivity models.
National Parc Des Ecrins: several sensors have been installed, with the aim to monitor pasture’s meadows phenology at different altitudes (e.g. agro-climatic conditions) and pastoral management. Two sites are situated in a pasture (name : Crouzet) of L’Argentière-la-Bessée. One site is located at 1940 m above sea level in a subalpine meadow, and the other one is situated in the alpine zone at 2350 m above sea level, in an alpine meadow. Both sites are equipped with NDVI sensors and cameras for landscape monitoring. The NDVI sensors and the camera installed on the lower site can transmit rea-time data (not available yet), while the camera installed on the higher site does not. Another site is at Lautaret, currently transmitting real time data of air temperature and humidity, wind speed, NDVI values and snow cover.
Please click on one of the buttons below to see the real-time data for the relevant park.
This section displays outcomes from future climate projections on the case study areas, climate change impact on pastoral productive macro-types performed by means of process-based (DayCent, PaSim) and statistical (Random Forest) modelling approaches. The analysis was carried out by means of meteorological observations and data on pasture management, production, growth and development, which were collected from stations located in the two study areas (Parc National des Ecrins and Gran Paradiso National Park). The section includes three sub-sections, namely:
- Future Climate impacts: The impacts of future climate are displayed as user friendly maps of the main climatic indicators. These indicators have been calculated from a downscaling and bias correction procedure of Regional Circulation Models so as to produce high-resolution current and future climatic data for the study areas at daily time step under future RCPs (4.5 and 8.5) IPCC scenarios and two time slices (2011–2040 and 2041-2070) as projected by three RCMs (ALADIN, CCLM, ICTP) and the ensemble of them.
- Pastoral suitability: Pastoral future suitability is displayed as user-friendly maps and derives from a machine learning (Random Forest) approach which was employed to map areas current suited to pastoral resources in the two study areas, and simulate the impact of climate change on their dynamics under two future RCPs (4.5 and 8.5) IPCC scenarios and two time slices (2011–2040 and 2041-2070), as ensembled from three RCMs (ALADIN, CCLM, ICTP).
- Impacts on pastoral productive macrotypes: changes on pastures Growing season, Biomass peak dates, Biomass peak value, GHG fluxes (NEE, N2O, CH4) NPP, GPP, and Soil water content on three pastoral macrotypes (namely low-medium and high productive) are displayed as graphs as simulated by PaSim and DayCent models under two future RCPs (4.5 and 8.5) IPCC scenarios and two time slices (2011–2040 and 2041-2070) as projected by the ensemble of the three RCMs (ALADIN, CCLM, ICTP). The models were firstly calibrated by means of satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI) and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) trajectories, and then run against future climatic dataset so to assess the impacts of future climate on biomass and phenology of three pasture macro-typologies, namely low-medium-high productive pastures.
Maps on climate change impacts for GIS skilled users are available at the WEBGIS section.
This section includes two subsections:
- List of feasible adaptation strategies: this section displays interactively a list of adaptation strategies identified to address climate change adaptation for the two case study areas. These strategies encompass both technical strategies and policies considering their applicability, impact on biodiversity, success factors, technical difficulties by means of on-field testing, stakeholders consultations, modelling output. These strategies are promoted for the Western Alpine pastoral contexts to address and cope with climate change and extreme climate events (e.g. droughts). A detailed description of these strategies is included in Deliverable C.6 (Feasible adaptation strategies) and will set the basis to develop the climate change action plan in alpine pastoral contexts (Action C.8) advocating adaption for pastures of the entire Alpine chain.
A Glossary is also displayed at the bottom.
- Outcomes from adaptation strategies application: This subsection displays graphs on outcomes deriving from the application of adaptation strategies to the three pasture productive macro-types as deriving from PaSim and DayCent modelling under two future RCPs (4.5 and 8.5) IPCC scenarios and two time slices (2011–2040 and 2041-2070) .
Please choose one type of adaptation strategy below in order to browse the relevant tree.
|Climate risks||Consequences on the environment (soil, vegetation and water) or animals||Potential consequences for the pastoral system||Adaptation measures||Issues to consider (management and biodiversity)||Technical issues||Factors for failure or success|
|• Lack of snow, very dry winter (frost exposure) or • Early snowmelt followed by spring frost or • Late spring or cold spring||Low production of grass due to lack of water or low temperatures or growth stop caused by frost||Poorer pastoral resource in quantity on low pastures (usually more productive) or delayed start of the growing season||Increase the consumable coarse vegetation or shrubs grazing and supplementary feeding of lactating cows||MANAGEMENT: Beware of a too early climbing towards the highest grasslands because of a lack of resources on low pastures. The use of coarse vegetation is recommended to save grass and for the health of the animals. BIODIVERSITY: Direct impact on minor species (if applied in spring).||Guided grazing or setting up of fenced corrals. If the herd is not used to consuming this type of vegetation, the shepherd's job will be complicated||• Shepherd skills (training) • Technical support to farmers • Habits of the herd|
|Reduction of the stocking rate by limiting the number of animals||MANAGEMENT: Not always possible||Observe the grasslands before the amontagnage||• Proximity of the farm to the alpage • Possibility of finding other destinations for a part of the herd • Listening to the farmer • Alternative solutions within the farm|
|Reduction of the animal stocking rate by delaying the amontagnage||MANAGEMENT: Not always possible (e.g. for agro-environmental related obligations, opening of accommodation activities) Also depends on the distance of the summer mountain pasture from the valley floor||Observe the grasslands before the amontagnage||• Proximity of the farm to the alpage • Flexibility and stocks on the farm|
|Search for additional pastures and/or brush clearing on the lower parts of the alpage||MANAGEMENT: - Availability and location of summer mountain pasture facilities and equipments - Good knowledge of the alpage||• Difficulties to graze in wooded areas when predators are present • Difficult to find water||• Presence of a shepherd's helper • Works and equipment financing|
|Recovery or construction of buildings and infrastructure for underutilized grazing areas||MANAGEMENT: Have the right to use agricultural land||Accessibility to pastures||• Works financing • Owners' will • Consent of stakeholders|
|Search for temporary buffer zones outside the alpage||MANAGEMENT: Distance from the alpage or the farm BIODIVERSITY: • Direct impact on minor species • Ungulates: competition||• Find free grasslands • Access to pastures • Fragmentation of properties • Pasture grazing in the forest is not always allowed||• Support for pasture search by municipalities and other bodies • Creation of AFP (pasture landowners association) • Relaunch of grazing in the intermediate areas of mayen|
|Early démontagnage at the end of the alpage season||MANAGEMENT: Availability of pastures at the valley floor||Choosing the right démontagnage date||• Farmer consultation • Alternative solutions on the farm|
|Reduction in quantity and quality of grass||Modification of yeaning dates||MANAGEMENT: Not always possible||
Adapt to the changing yeaning period and the market
Technical support to farmers in this process
Degradation of vegetation composition
|Change of livestock category, breed or species||MANAGEMENT: Radical change in the productive orientation||Complicated to implement||• Market • Shepherd skills (training)|
|Low grass production at the beginning of the season and/or grass too tender||Poorer pastoral resource in quantity on low pastures (productive areas) or delayed start of vegetation||Permanent modification of grazing calendar ( amontagnage)||Realignment of the annual operating calendar of the farms||Flexibility of the farm|
|Early spring||Plant phenological stage already advanced at the arrival on the alpage||Lower nutritional quality and palatability||Tight herding in productive grassland and supplementary feeding for lactating cows||MANAGEMENT: • Difficult to fatten lambs or keep the same milk production with this type of resource • Beware of overgrazing||In case of high number of lambs, a more suitable vegetation is needed||
Shepherd permanent presence and skills (training)
|Advanced grazing period (exceptional for one year or all years)||MANAGEMENT: Distance from the alpage or the farm BIODIVERSITY: • Direct impact on minor species • Ungulates: competition||• Observe the grasslands before the amontagnage • Difficult to combine haymaking and grazing, both advanced||• Proximity of the farm to the alpage • Possibility of finding other destinations for a part of the herd|
|Spring drought and very little snow cover||Insufficient water stock in the soil at the start of vegetation growth||Low resource in low-altitude productive pastures||Reduce grazing pressure by reducing the period of use of the lowest grasslands. It can be compensated in increasing grazing pressure on forested lowland areas||BIODIVERSITY: Care must be taken with overgrazing of fragile grasslands and the phenology of early flowering plant species of EU interest (e.g. orchids)||• Identify when grazing has too much impact on the environment • Grazing in the forest is not always allowed||Shepherd skills (training)|
|Delayed or slower démontagnage||MANAGEMENT: - Not always possible. - Distance from the alpage or the farm||Observe the grasslands before the amontagnage||• Proximity of the alpage to the farm • Flexibility and stocks on the farm|
|Reduction of the stocking rate by limiting the number of animals||MANAGEMENT : Not always possible||Observe the grasslands before the amontagnage||• Proximity of pastures • Possibility of finding other destinations for a part of the herd • Farmer consultation • Alternative solutions on the farm|
|Very marked drought in early summer||Grass that dries quickly||Nutritional quality and palatability could be reduced||Démontagnage of a part of livestock during the season||MANAGEMENT: Distance of the alpage from the farm||A truck is needed to transfer the animals||Flexibility and stocks on the farm|
|For recurring events: reduction of the stocking rate by limiting the number of animals||Beware of overgrazing||• Agreements between breeders • Possibility of finding other destinations for a part of the herd||Water availability|
|Low grass production||Lack of available grass. Negative consequences on animal health and production||Exploration of new pasture areas, including wooded or shrubby areas||MANAGEMENT: Predators: alert for young and little livestock. BIODIVERSITY: • Vegetation: site-specific protection measures • Minor species: direct impact • Ungulates: competition||Difficult if predators are present||Difficulties in obtaining the necessary permission to use these areas - land management is often complex|
|Search for buffer areas on lower pastures or on the farm||MANAGEMENT: Distance from the alpage or the farm BIODIVERSITY: • Direct impact on minor species • Ungulates: competition||• Finding free pastures • Availability of land||• Support for pasture search by municipalities and other bodies • Creation of AFP (pasture landowners association)|
|Storage of forage resources in lowland farm by increasing hay making in marginal areas or by hay purchasing||MANAGEMENT: Intensification practices on species-rich grasslands||Find complementary hay meadows||Improvement of the land context|
|Fodder supply in alpage for lactating cows||BIODIVERSITY: Beware of the impact on the environment||• Presence of tracks to access alpages or compensation for helicopter use • Feeding costs and difficulty in calibrating quantity||Availability of hay at the valley floor|
|Pastoral utilization of fodder trees, in low-elevation summer mountain pastures||BIODIVERSITY: "Habitat trees": specific protection measures||• Herd size • Distance from broadleaved trees • Elevation • Adapted forest thinning techniques|
|Necessity to restore complementary grazing areas and/or improve animal welfare||Pasture restoration and construction or rehabilitation of alpage facilities in new grazing areas. Restoration of mid-mountain pastures (mayen)||BIODIVERSITY: • Monitoring sustainability • Manage direct impacts of operations with mechanical equipment • Respect co-benefits: carbon uptake, water holding capacity||• Accessibility • high worklad||• Funding • Owners' will • Consent of stakeholders|
|Heatwaves and wind at the beginning of summer||Grass reaching maturity at the same time (or even dried) over a large part of the summer mountain pasture||
Lower nutritional quality and palatability
|Tight herding in productive grassland and supplementary feeding for lactating cows||MANAGEMENT: Difficult to maintain the same milk production with this type of resource BIODIVERSITY: Beware of overgrazing fragile grasslands||Good skills in guided grazing are required||Shepherd skills (training)|
|Démontagnage of a part of livestock during the season or early démontagnage of all livestock||MANAGEMENT: Distance of the alpage from the farm||A truck is needed to transfer the animals||
Flexibility and stocks on the farm
|Very hot and dry summer, heatwave and drought||
|Watering problem||Adapt grazing tracks for watering the animals||BIODIVERSITY: Watching out for possible deterioration of vegetation and soil related to additional animal movements||Adaptation of grazing usually set on vegetation||
Early summer, assessment of a possible risk of water shortage
|Watering and irrigation problem||Rational management of water points on pastures||MANAGEMENT: • Water supply possibilities • Promoting the use of movable watering tanks BIODIVERSITY: Vegetation and minor species: direct impact from trampling and pathways||Create a water distribution network on the alpage||• Important investments • Shepherd skills (training)|
|Search for long-lasting supply solutions (impluviums, catchments, cisterns, drinkers, etc.)||MANAGEMENT: • Monitoring the quantity, quality and location of equipment • Promoting the use of movable watering tanks BIODIVERSITY: Vegetation and minor species: direct impact||Find the right compromise to avoid the multiplication of equipment||• Financing of works and equipment • Accessibility|
|Restore traditional irrigation systems and improve irrigation efficiency by sprinkling||MANAGEMENT: • Costs (installation) • Promoting the use of movable watering tanks BIODIVERSITY: • Vegetation and minor species: Direct impacts from trampling and pathways • Managing the direct impacts of interventions with mechanical means||Complex and time-consuming work||• Access of pastures to construction vehicles (mini excavators) • Funding of works|
|Abandonment of a grazing area or early démontagnage||MANAGEMENT: Distance of the alpage from the farm||A truck is needed to transfer the animals||
Flexibility and stocks on the farm
|Grass that dries quickly||Low nutritional quality and palatability||Increase the consumable coarse vegetation or shrubs grazing and supplementary feeding of lactating cows||MANAGEMENT: - Beware of too early climbing to higher pastures - Difficult to maintain the same milk production with this type of resource BIODIVERSITY: Direct impact on minor species (if applied in spring)||Animal monitoring that will try to seek out the greenest grass at higher elevations||• Shepherd skills (training) • Water availability|
|Possible deterioration of vegetation composition in the medium and long term||Worsening of the fodder resource||• Improvement of grazing efficiency (rotational grazing) • Improvement of pasture quality through optimal manure management and/or elimination of undesirable species and/or 24 hours grazing time||MANAGEMENT: In case of the presence of predators, 24 hours grazing time is not feasible||• Control of the herd by the shepherd • Labor intensive||Shepherd skills (training)|
|No regrowth on lower grasslands already grazed at the beginning of the season||Grass shortage at the end of the season. Negative consequences on animal health and production||Delaying the grazing of grasslands that dry out less quickly and lower areas, to preserve grass for the end of the season||BIODIVERSITY: Vegetation: Beware of overgrazing of fragile grasslands||Risk of not using some pastures at the end of the season|
Increased the coarse vegetation grazing at the end of the grazing season
|MANAGEMENT: Difficult to maintain the same milk production with this type of resource||
Mastery of tight guarding or fence-setting
|Shepherd skills (training)|
|Early démontagnage||BIODIVERSITY: Positive effect||Winter hay stocks utilisation||Flexibility and stocks on the farm|
|Very warm days||Increased resting time and consequently reduced grass consumption; high water requirements||Changing grazing times (earlier, later, night grazing)||MANAGEMENT: In case of predators presence only sunrise and sunset grazing are manageable (with supplementary helpers like herders and livestock guardian-dogs)||• Night grazing is impossible if predators are present • Shepherd waking up very early • Flexibility depends on production orientation and husbandry system||Presence of a shepherd’s helper|
|Negative effects of heat stress on animals||Consequences for animal health, production and reproduction||Inclusion of trees and appropriate management of forest providing shaded areas in mid- and low-elevation pastures||MANAGEMENT: Predators: alert for young and little livestock||
Adapted forest thinning techniques
|Integrated silvo-forestry management|
|Rainy summer||Wet soils||Development of paw diseases||• Preliminary training of grazing animals, which should be carried out systematically every year (hooves cutting, footbaths). Care and isolation of sick animals • Prioritise areas where vegetation is sparse (or less tall)||BIODIVERSITY: Possible transfer to wildlife MANAGEMENT: High risk of predation in bad weather||Intensive work||• Shepherd and farmer skills (training) • Availability of personnel • Necessary equipment set up|
If vegetation is sparse, increased run-off and soil loss
|Damage to pastures||Continuous and careful maintenance of the drainage channels and the road network (paths, tracks,...)||BIODIVERSITY: Managing the direct impacts of interventions with mechanical means||
|Very mild autumn||Good pasture conditions at the end of the grazing season||Possible extension of the grazing period if grass is still present||Late démontagnage||BIODIVERSITY: • Vegetation: Beware of overgrazing of fragile grasslands • Ungulates: Competition||Flexibility of farm organisation|
|GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL MEASURES|
|Term in French||Term in Italian||English translation||ENG|
|Alpage||Alpeggio||Summer mountain pastures||It indicates both the mountain pastures used by herds and flocks in the summer season, and the structures present on these pastures (houses, stables, milk processing rooms, etc.). The alpage consists of a variable number of remue or tramuto at higher and higher altitudes. The average period of stay in alpage is about 100 days.
The alpine pasture is a high-altitude pastoral unit used in summer by herds and flocks belonging to one or several farmers. Usually the alpine pasture consists of a variable number of pasture areas and huts, where the herd and its shepherds stop for the time necessary to consume the surrounding pastures. Stops in the trams, located at different altitudes, take place both uphill and downhill during the season, depending on the availability of fodder.
|Quartiers d’août||Tramuto superiore||High altitude pastoral paddock||Pastures at higher altitudes, usually grazed in August.|
|Amontagnage||Monticazione||Climbing||Seasonal, vertical transhumance that takes place in the period of late spring/early summer when cattle and flocks are transferred from the lowlands to the summer mountain pastures|
|Démontagnage||Demonticazione||Downclimbing||Descent of cattle and flocks from the alpage to the lowlands at the end of summer or in automn.|
|Pâture intégrale||Pascolamento integrale||24 hours grazing time||Night and day grazing with no return to the barn|
|Végétation grossière||Vegetazione grossolana||Coarse vegetation||Graminoid vegetation that is poorly consumed by animals (Patzkea paniculata, Brachypodium gr. pinnatum, Helictotrichon spp., Deschampsia caespitosa, Calamagrostis spp., etc)|
|Bois adaptés à une utilisation sylvo-pastorale||Boschi vocati per un utilizzo silvo-pastorale||Forests suitable for sylvo-pastoral use||Forests suitable for sylvo-pastoral use: these are generally even-aged woods characterized by a herbaceous understory, likely rich in grasses and/or legumes and/or a shrub layer having a mid pastoral value. The main tree species larch forests, secondary broadleaf forests (birch, poplar, invasive maple and ash forests, etc.), Scots pine and oak forests rich in grasses and legumes, sometimes fir woods. This category doesn’t entail forests directly protected, stands under regeneration or transformation processes as well as uneven-aged stands at any stage of growth. Beech forests, fir forests, oak-hornbeam forests do not have a particular forestry vocation. In suitable stands, the conditions of the sward, light on the ground and availabiklity for grazing can be improved by thinning, also through the transformation of irregular stands, without any particular management and without any other particular vocations.|
||Fauna minore||Minor species||Wild minor species – complex of small size species (“minor” doesn’t have a biological or systematic meaning) like: amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, fish and insects.
Some “minor species” are listed in The Bird (2009/147/EC) and Habitat Directive (92/43/CEE). Directives define the protection level.
|Mayen||Mayen||Mayen||Mid-mountain pasture, used on the way up or down from the mountain pasture, thus at the beginning and end of the grazing period.|
|GLOSSARY OF ADAPTATION POLICIES|
|Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)||Politica Agricola Comune (PAC)||Politique Agricole Commune (PAC)||The CAP is a common policy for all EU countries which aims to support farmers, improve agricultural productivity, help tackle climate change and the sustainable management of natural resources, maintain rural areas and landscapes.
The CAP 2014/2020 is structured around two pillars: the 1st pillar, financed by the EAGF fund, includes market measures and direct payments; the 2nd pillar, financed by the EAFRD, includes measures to support rural development.
|Direct payments or income support (1st pillar)||Pagamenti diretti (1° pilastro)||Subventions directes (1er pilier)||Direct payments are financial contributions with the aim of ensuring income stability and remunerating farmers for environmentally friendly farming and for providing public services not normally paid for by the markets.|
|Basic payment scheme (BPS)||Regime di pagamento di base (RPB)||Régime de paiement de base (DPB)||The basic payment is a 1st pillar income support scheme and is decoupled (i.e. independent of a type of agricultural production). The BPS is based on entitlements allocated to farmers, according to the hectares cultivated.|
|Rural developement (2nd pillar)||Sviluppo rurale (2° pilastro)||Développement rural (2ème pilier)||Rural development policy is designed to provide support for the EU’s rural areas and cope with a wide range of economic, environmental and social issues. The implementation of the policy is based on the development by Member States (or their regions) of rural development programmes (RDP).|
|Rural development programme (RDP)||Programma di Sviluppo Rurale (PSR)||Programme de développement rural (PDR)||The RDP is the main EU programming and financing instrument that allows Member States and Regions to support interventions in the agricultural and forestry sector and, more generally, the development of rural areas.|
|Agri-environment-climate Measures (AECM)||Misure agro-climatico-ambientali||Mesures Agro-Environnementales et Climatiques (MAEC)||Funding mechanism under RDPs to provide financial support to farmers who, in addition to their usual farming practices, voluntarily undertake commitments for a period of five years to conserve and promote the farming practices that contribute to the environment and climate.|
|Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)||Pagamenti per i servizi ecosistemici (PES)||Paiements pour Services Environnementaux (PSE)||Payments for environmental services (PES) in agriculture remunerate farmers for actions that contribute to restoring or maintaining ecosystems, from which society benefits (preservation of water quality, carbon storage, landscape and biodiversity protection…). These benefits are called ecosystem services. The actions of farmers, on the other hand, are described as environmental services.|
|High Nature Value (HNV)||Alto Valore Naturale (AVN)||Haute Valeur Naturelle (HVN)||“High Nature Value” (HNV) refers to agricultural systems that are closely associated with rich biodiversity, through complex interactions between species and agricultural practices.|
|Forests suitable for sylvo-pastoral use||Boschi vocati per un utilizzo silvo-pastorale||Bois adaptés à une utilisation sylvo-pastorale||Forests suitable for silvo-pastoral use: these are generally even-aged woods characterized by a herbaceous understory, likely rich in grasses and/or legumes and/or a shrub layer having a significant pastoral value. They are represented by larch forests, secondary broadleaf forests (birch, poplar, invasive maple and ash forests, etc.), Scots pine and oak forests rich in grasses and legumes, sometimes fir woods. This category doesn’t entail forests directly protected, stands under regeneration or transformation processes as well as uneven-aged stands at any stage of growth. Generally, beech forests, fir forests, oak-hornbeam forests do not have a particular silvo-pastoral vocation. In suitable stands, the conditions of the sward, light on the ground and availability for grazing can be improved by thinning, also through the transformation of irregular stands, without any particular management and without any other particular vocations.|
This section includes outcomes from the vulnerability analysis, i.e. modelling outcomes and socio-economic variables, as well as climatic and biodiversity indicators as resulting from Action C.5. The model outcomes are obtained using two distinct models. Pastures productivity and emissions are estimated using two biogeochemical models (PaSim and DayCent), whilst shifts in distribution of pastures are obtained using machine learning approach (Random Forest). List of socio-economic, climatic and biodiversity indicators are defined according to a variety of means including literature scanning, indicator classification, and local stakeholders’ contribution by means of individual questionnaires.
Model outcomes are displayed coupled with climatic indicators (aridity index, hot and cold spells frequency index, etc.), and complemented with biodiversity indicators, in view of a socio-economic assessment. This will allow to create vulnerability indicators for the pastures located in the study area as well as to extrapolate information of the best timing for grazing under current and future climate.
This section makes available all interactive maps produced during the project under a webgis environment, thus requiring a skilled user in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. The maps available are the following:
- Current and future climate (absolute values and delta changes)
- Pastoral Suitability
- Pasture Macro types (13 pastoral typologies, 3 productive Pasture macro types)